A river runs through it — and keeps the Amazon’s bird species diverse

first_imgA new genetic analysis shows that rivers in northeast South America rarely give rise to new bird species, but are important in maintaining existing biodiversity.Researchers found that 86 pairs of the more than 400 endemic bird species in the Rio Negro basin have range boundaries that meet but never overlap, many of them coinciding with either the Rio Negro or the Rio Branco.Amazonian rivers, they conclude, can play two distinct roles in species evolution: their formation may separate populations and create new species directly, and their presence can prevent hybridization or competition between related species that evolved independently and meet at the river.Understanding how the size of a barrier influences its ability to isolate populations genetically will have major implications for how conservationists try to mitigate the effects of habitat fragmentation caused by human activities. Amazonian rivers don’t often drive the creation of new species, but do help maintain distinct populations, according to a study published in the journal Science Advances last month.Amazonian rivers create stark barriers through the landscape and form the edges of many species’ range. But a large-scale genetic analysis in the Rio Negro basin suggests that while rivers have not played a direct role in giving rise to most new bird species, they may be crucial to maintaining them.The Guiana Shield is a region of the South American tectonic plate that includes Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Venezuela and parts of Colombia and Brazil, which together harbor high levels of biodiversity, including over 250 endemic bird species. Of these, 86 pairs have range boundaries that meet but never overlap, many of them coinciding with one of two rivers: the Rio Negro and the Rio Branco.Using the most comprehensive genetic and geographical database compiled for any Amazonian river basin to date, Luciano Naka and Robb Brumfield, both from Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, determined that the majority of pairs were unlikely to have speciated as a direct result of the formation of the two rivers. Most species evolved before the rivers formed, and did not show the pattern of evolutionary relationships expected of species separated suddenly by a physical barrier. But once formed, rivers act as significant barriers that isolate species, a finding that may also apply to man-made barriers such as roads.The caica parrot (Pyrilia caica), one of the more than 400 bird species endemic to the Guiana Shield. Its population is mirrored across the lower Rio Negro and Rio Branco by the closely related orange-cheeked parrot (Pyrilia barrabandi). Image by Luciano N. Naka.“This is a major advance towards understanding the role of rivers as agents of speciation in Amazonia,” says Angelo Capparella, a zoologist at Illinois State University in Normal, Illinois, who was not involved in the study. Previous research has investigated this phenomenon for one or a few species, but large-scale studies have been hampered by a lack of specimens; it took Naka, who is also affiliated with the Federal University of Pernambuco in Recife, Brazil, over a decade to collect the necessary data for birds in the Rio Negro Basin. “The combination of [the] large sample size of paired taxa with the latest in phylogenetic methods … makes for this being a robust study,” says Capparella.For many species of birds, mammals and invertebrates, Amazonian rivers mark the start and end of their range. The pattern is so noticeable, renowned naturalist Alfred Wallace wrote about the phenomenon in his 1852 article, “On the Monkeys of the Amazon”: “the native hunters … always cross over the river when they want to procure particular animals, which are found even on the river’s bank on one side, but never by any chance on the other.”The range of the black nunbird (Monasa atra) ends at the lower Rio Negro. Across the river lives a population of the white-fronted nunbird. The two species shared a common ancestor some 4.5 million years ago. Image by Luciano N. Naka.To understand how this pattern arose, Naka and Brumfield used mitochondrial DNA sequence data from specimens supplied by U.S. and Brazilian ornithological collections to estimate the likely divergence times for 74 pairs of bird species that replace one another along the stretches of the Rio Branco and Rio Negro. They found that the species arose between 240,000 and 8 million years ago. “The ages of each pair span through millions of years,” says Naka, making it very unlikely that a single event could be responsible for separating all pairs.Next, the authors reconstructed the birds’ evolutionary tree to determine patterns of relatedness between pairs. If two species are created by the formation of a river, or other physical barrier, then they would be likely to be each other’s closest relatives, known as “sister taxa.” But this is not the case for birds living in the Guiana Shield. “There are other Amazonian populations that are more closely related to either one of the two taxa studied than its cross-river replacement,” Naka says, indicating that the species probably evolved elsewhere and later met at the river barrier.Further support for this interpretation came from published geomorphological data for the area, which indicates that both rivers are in fact much younger than most of the species included in the study. The Rio Negro formed just 1.2 million years ago, and the Rio Branco is younger still, with evidence that its course changed from northeast to south, reaching its current route through the Guiana Shield just 19,000 years ago, making them far too young to have been the driving factor in the evolution of most bird species pairs.However, 12 taxa pairs that are separated by the upper Rio Negro had diverged around the same time that the river was formed, making it possible that they speciated as a direct result of its formation. “We cannot rule out their common origin,” Naka says.The forests of the Guiana Shield are home to more than 400 endemic bird species. Image by Luciano N. Naka.Amazonian rivers, they conclude, can play two distinct roles in species evolution: their formation may separate populations and create new species directly, and their presence can prevent hybridization or competition between related species that evolved independently and meet at the river.In his 1852 paper, Wallace hypothesized that the width of a river would determine the extent to which species differed on either side. Naka says their results show some tentative support for this hypothesis. “The Rio Negro is a good example showing how the lower and very wide reaches of the river is a barrier for about 80 pairs of avian taxa, and the upper and much narrower reaches only bound the distribution of about 20 pairs,” he says. However, the Rio Branco bucks this trend: it is just 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) wide but acts as a barrier to 40 pairs of birds and several species of primates.Understanding how the size of a barrier influences its ability to isolate populations genetically will have major implications for how conservationists try to mitigate the effects of habitat fragmentation caused by human activities. “Features such as major roads … could be fragmenting bird populations to the point that it will either unleash a new wave of speciation or, more likely, force populations into remnant habitat that is too small for long-term persistence,” Capparella says.This type of study can underpin conservation approaches known as Conserving Nature’s Stage (CNS) that take into account the physical factors that generate and maintain biodiversity when designing nature reserves that will offer a habitat environment in the long term.Banner image of the Rio Branco by Thiago Orsi Laranjeiras.Citation: L. N. Naka, R. T. Brumfield, The dual role of Amazonian rivers in the generation and maintenance of avian diversity. Sci. Adv. 4, eaar8575 (2018). Article published by hayat Amazon Biodiversity, Amazon Conservation, Birds, Evolution, Genetics center_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

Inter Milan’s pursuit of Liverpool midfielder not hindered by January spending

first_img1 Liverpool midfielder Lucas Leiva Inter Milan remain in hot pursuit of Liverpool midfielder Lucas, despite splashing the cash to bring Xherdan Shaqiri and Lukas Podolski to the San Siro.The 28-year-old struggled to cement a place in Brendan Rodgers’ starting line-up earlier in the season, but has emerged as a key player after a string of impressive performances for the Reds.And Liverpool are now seemingly unwilling to negotiate the sale of the combative Brazilian, especially to the club who beat them to the signing of Switzerland winger Shaqiri.Inter may also be reliant on offloading some of their current squad first, with Ibrahima Mbaye, Rene Krhin and Yann M’Vila all likely to make way to facilitate a move for the Brazilian.last_img

Mark Zuckerberg’s Mythic T-Shirt And Fake Silicon Valley Do-Goodery

first_imghelen popkin 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting Tags:#Facebook#Mark Zuckerberg#Silicon Valley#Truth#Truthiness A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai…center_img Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… Mark Zuckerberg wears a version of the same gruel-toned T-shirt every day not because media handlers suggested he rock a signature look in the manner of visionary icons Albert Einstein and Steve Jobs. Nor does the Zuck don apparel of a color that exists only in dystopian tales (sort of a 1984-gray) simply because he’s a really busy guy who can’t be bothered. According to Zuckerberg, in his first public Q&A conducted in English, the lack of diversity in his personal wardrobe is because he cares.  See also: Thanks Mark Zuckerberg! Now China Knows We’re Stupid“I really want to clear my life to make it so that I have to make as few decisions as possible about anything except how to best serve the community,” Zuckerberg told the audience during Thursday’s town hall on the Facebook campus in Menlo Park. “I’m in this really lucky position where I get to wake up every day and help serve more than 1 billion people, and I feel like I’m not doing my job if I spend any of my energy on things.” Things like the color spectrum, clearly.Is Zuckerberg ingesting nothing but soylent, too? Think of time saved! Does the Zuckerberg uniform include astronaut diapers, so he can “go” on the go? And by serving “the community” does Zuckerberg mean “capitalism”?The Truth Is Out ThereTruth in Silicon Valley, like Einstein’s Spacetime theory, is relative.Running a multi-billion dollar for-profit corporation with a dodgy history of hiring practices, privacy rights, and “customer service” is neither a priestly calling nor noble endeavor. Mother Theresa, Zuckerberg ain’t. Doctors Without Borders serves humanity. Teachers and firefighters serve humanity. Building shareholder value when you are yourself the biggest shareholder is a somewhat less selfless undertaking. Nonetheless, do-goodery—the marketing tool du-jour in Silicon Valley—saturates every aspect of Zuckerberg’s media-honed public persona. The reason is obvious. Public acts of charity are more than a sweet tax-write off if you’re a billionaire CEOs who can easily afford to flip a few couch cushions in the name of, say, eradicating Ebola.See also: Facebook Wants You To Help Eradicate EbolaIt shows your “community”—who may feel burned by your company more than a few times—that you care. It also plays great with shareholders, at least one of whom recently expressed concern that despite the social network’s public support of the gay and transgender community, its political action committee “has donated 41% of contributions since its inception to politicians voting against LGBT rights.”Trust No OneThat shareholder’s concern that Facebook’s fiduciary hypocrisy could cause it to fall from public favor is documented in Facebook’s April filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission. That same filing includes a note about how 30% of the PAC’s contributions have gone to “politicians voting to deregulate greenhouse gases,” the filing states, “despite Facebook’s public support for the environment.”Zuckerberg, one of the richest men on the planet trying to pass himself off as a do-gooder, is one of the most spectacular cases of personality overreach ever.  That doesn’t mean you should quit Facebook. But just because you use Zuckerberg’s product doesn’t mean you have to drink his Kool-Aid.Screengrab by Facebook Related Posts last_img read more

Graphic Designer Makes Concept Uniform For Notre Dame’s ‘Shamrock Series’

first_imgNotre Dame's mascot running with a flag on the football field.SOUTH BEND, IN – SEPTEMBER 17: The Notre Dame Fighting Irish mascot carries the school flag on the field before the game against the Michigan State Spartans on September 17, 2005 at Notre Dame Stadium in South Bend, Indiana. (Photo by Elsa/Getty Images)Last week, Notre Dame unveiled its ‘Shamrock Series’ uniforms for this year’s game against Navy – and suffice to say, most fans weren’t impressed. One graphic designer came up with a different take on the event, and we imagine Fighting Irish supporters will like it a bit better.Next Gen Uniforms released a concept uniform that focuses on green and gold. It includes Notre Dame’s interlocking logo on the helmet and stripes on the shoulders. It’s a clean look. Notre Dame fans – what do you think?last_img

Man arrested after shots fired at RCMP detachment on NB First Nation

first_imgTOBIQUE, N.B. – One man is in custody after shots were fired into the RCMP detachment on the Tobique First Nation in western New Brunswick.Cpl. Jullie Rogers-Marsh says officers arrived at the detachment on Sunday to find several bullet holes in the side and the back of the building.She said it’s believed that the incident happened early Sunday.No one was injured.On Monday, a 25-year-old man from Tobique First Nation was arrested in relation to the incident, and he remains in custody on another matter.Charges are pending in connection with the shooting.last_img

Seattle Seahawks Need A Healthy Sidney Rice To Shoulder

Sidney Rice has a lot on his shoulders this year with the Seattle Seahawks. The problem is, he had surgery on both shoulders and so they are hardly ready for him to take on NFL hits.“This is going to be up to them. I know they’re going to protect me as much as possible,” Rice said of the team. “Preseason is important but it’s not as important as the regular season. They’re going to take their time and progress me along, bring me along as much as possible, and we’ll see what happens during the preseason games.”Rice’s first season with Seattle was marred by injury. He injured one shoulder during the preseason and said he was unaware that the other was also damaged. Rice played as best he could through the two shoulder injuries until a pair of concussions — the second one suffered in Week 12 against Washington — finally landed Rice on injured reserve.His first shoulder surgery on the right one came Jan. 3. His left shoulder was repaired Feb. 16. Still, it could be a while before the Seahawks put him at risk. Initially, they were going to place Rice on the physically unable to perform list for the start of training camp, but he was cleared to participate in drills over the weekend before the first practice.“We’re just going to go through this conservatively, I guess you can say, and lengthen the time of his recovery through this camp. That’s great that he’s working and getting the timing worked, but we won’t get him banged for a while,” coach Pete Carroll said. “We’ll see how that goes as we start to make progress. This is the best time for us to have our hands on him and really work him right and finish off his off-season, and I just think he’s had enough that he’s been through that it warrants taking our time here and not rushing him back.”Rice’s health is of the utmost importance for Seattle this year because of the questions that linger with the rest of its receivers. The competition to find who will start opposite Rice, along with determining the depth of the position, is one of the few true battles the Seahawks have to solve during the next month.“I’m the leader of this group now with Mike (Williams) gone and I just want to lead by example,” Rice said. “These guys know how to play football but we have to bring it every day, bring the right attitude.” read more

Is It Time To Bring Back The Hartford Whalers

Then again, fans weren’t exactly being treated to great hockey — and the trade of star Ron Francis and the talk of relocation didn’t help to build goodwill either. In the 1989-90 season, the Whalers had a slightly above-average 38-33-9 record and also earned slightly above-average revenues. But things went underwater from there: the Whalers never had a winning season again.The question is whether the Islanders would be better off with one-eighth of a loaf in New York or a market to themselves in Connecticut. Considering the popularity of the New York Rangers (and the presence of the New Jersey Devils), the inadequacy of the Barclays Center for hockey, and all the other competition for the fans’ entertainment dollar in New York, it’s probably a pretty close call. It was one of the best logos in all of sports. A green “W,” and a blue whale’s tail, neatly using the negative space to form an “H,” as in “Hartford Whalers.” Unfortunately, they don’t give out Stanley Cups for graphic design. The Whalers didn’t have a lot of success on the ice, winning just one playoff series in 18 NHL seasons before moving to North Carolina and becoming the Carolina Hurricanes before the 1997-98 season.But now there’s a chance the Whalers could resurface. The state of Connecticut is pursuing the New York Islanders, who are in danger of being kicked out of their woefully inadequate arena at the Barclays Center in Brooklyn. The team would play at the XL Center in Hartford, the Whalers’ former home.How successful might Whalers 2.0 be? In a 2013 study, I estimated that about 175,000 avid NHL fans live in the Hartford-New Haven metro area. That sounds bad, though it’s comparable to or slightly better than some of the lower-tier American NHL markets, including Columbus, Raleigh-Durham, Miami and Nashville (and better than Las Vegas, where the NHL is expanding). Furthermore, there’s potentially room for growth. According to our estimates, 7 percent of adults in the Hartford metro area were avid NHL fans in 2013. But the percentage is 13 percent in the New York metro area and 17 percent in the Boston metro area. If the Islanders or another team were to relocate to Hartford, the numbers would probably improve. The Hartford-New Haven media market is the largest in the U.S. without a “big four” sports franchise. But it’s only about one-eighth the size of New York’s media market (which includes Long Island and Northern New Jersey).Of course, the NHL’s last stint in Hartford didn’t exactly end successfully. Between the 1989-90 and 1996-97 seasons, the average NHL team’s revenues more than doubled, increasing from $22 million to $52 million, according to estimates from Forbes and Financial World magazines. But the Whalers’ revenues didn’t increase at all during this period, flatlining at about $25 million. That doesn’t adjust for inflation, so their income actually decreased on a real basis. read more

Napoli eyeing Ancelotti

first_imgCarlo Ancelotti would reportedly be considered as a solid option for Napoli if Maurizio Sarri departs from the team this summer.Ancelotti is in the crosshairs of quite a few Premier League clubs as there are many who are experiencing issues with their current coaches and such that already know they have no managers for the next season.Chelsea’s Conte has been having problems with decisions, taken by higher management, Arsenal’s Wenger officially announced his departure from the club despite spending 22 years there and even the Spurs as Pochettino seems unable to bring out the best from the players.Maurizio Sarri, JuventusMaurizio Sarri satisfied despite Juventus’ draw at Fiorentina Andrew Smyth – September 14, 2019 Maurizio Sarri was satisfied with Juventus’ performance on Saturday afternoon after finishing a tough game at Fiorentina 0-0.Ancelotti, however, is being targeted by Napoli as he has been a free agent ever since being fired by Bayern Munich. He turned down the Italy job with the main motive that he is looking to work at club level, according to Football Italia.Considering this, Napoli might indeed be a perfect fit for him and the other way around – he is an experienced coach, who might lead them to a Scudetto win, which has not happened since the 90s, and they are an Italian team – he would not even have to change the country.last_img read more

Gabbiadini on Sampdoria return I didnt give it a seconds thought

first_imgItalian striker Manolo Gabbiadini revealed that rejoining Sampdoria was an easy decision after completing his transfer from Southampton last weekGabbiadini decided to end his two-year stay at St Mary’s this month after making just four starts in the Premier League for Southampton this season.Although the 27-year-old did enjoy some highs in his short stay in England with his most notable feat coming in the 2017 EFL Cup final, where he scored twice against Manchester United in a 3-2 defeat for Southampton.Now Gabbiadini has returned to Sampdoria, who he played for between 2013 to 2015 before leaving for Napoli, and is looking forward to his second spell in Liguria.“The Premier League is a unique League,” Gabbiadini told Il Secolo XIX.“It a positive experience, which let me grow, and I’d do it again, but it went so-so for me.Romelu Lukaku, Inter MilanLukaku backed to beat Ronaldo in Serie A scoring charts Andrew Smyth – September 14, 2019 Former Inter Milan star Andy van der Meyde is confident Romelu Lukaku will outscore Cristiano Ronaldo in this season’s Serie A.“What will stay with me? Several things. I scored twice in the 2017 [League] Cup Final and scored the goal that kept us up last season.“Let’s say I was always there whenever I was needed most over the last two years and I still have a wonderful relationship with their fans. They used to chant ‘Lamborghini-Gabbiadini’.“When you leave somewhere, you don’t think about going back and just think about where you’re going next.“However, I left Samp on very good terms and when the opportunity [of returning] came up, I didn’t give it a second’s thought.“Physically I feel good. I haven’t played for over a month but there’s no winter break in England and I’ve kept training.”Gabbiadini scored 12 goals in 60 appearances for Southampton in total.last_img read more

Lilac Fire finally 100 contained after 10 days of battling

first_img Posted: December 16, 2017 Categories: Local San Diego News FacebookTwitter Lilac Fire finally 100% contained after 10 days of battling SAN DIEGO (KUSI) — After 10 days of destruction, the Lilac Fire was 100 percent contained Saturday, fire officials announced.”A big thank you to our local, state and federal cooperators,” Cal Fire San Diego tweeted around 6 a.m. “We couldn’t do it without our great partnerships and teamwork.”In total, 1,659 firefighters and other personnel helped battle the blaze.The Lilac Fire destroyed 157 structures — many of them dwellings in the Rancho Monserate Country Club mobile home park in Fallbrook — and damaged 64 more. No human deaths were reported, but at least 46 horses died, many of them stabled at the San Luis Rey Downs Training Center in Bonsall.The Santa Ana winds that fueled the massive blaze returned earlier this week and were set to return again Sunday, though weaker than they were when the fire started.A fire weather watch was issued for San Diego County on Sunday from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m.Riverside, San Bernardino and Orange counties will be under a red flag warning during the same time period.Locally, fire agencies are bracing for any new fires, while in Ventura and Santa Barbara counties, fire crews are continuing to battle the even-larger Thomas Fire.That blaze, which broke out 12 days ago and is still only 40 percent contained, has now grown to the third-largest in California’s history at more than 259,000 acres burned. Full containment is not expected until early January.The 2003 Cedar Fire in San Diego County still holds the record as the state’s largest wildfire at 273,246 acres, while the 2007 Witch Fire and 1970 Laguna Fire, both in San Diego County, are also among the 10 largest in California history.center_img , December 16, 2017last_img read more