A river runs through it — and keeps the Amazon’s bird species diverse

first_imgA new genetic analysis shows that rivers in northeast South America rarely give rise to new bird species, but are important in maintaining existing biodiversity.Researchers found that 86 pairs of the more than 400 endemic bird species in the Rio Negro basin have range boundaries that meet but never overlap, many of them coinciding with either the Rio Negro or the Rio Branco.Amazonian rivers, they conclude, can play two distinct roles in species evolution: their formation may separate populations and create new species directly, and their presence can prevent hybridization or competition between related species that evolved independently and meet at the river.Understanding how the size of a barrier influences its ability to isolate populations genetically will have major implications for how conservationists try to mitigate the effects of habitat fragmentation caused by human activities. Amazonian rivers don’t often drive the creation of new species, but do help maintain distinct populations, according to a study published in the journal Science Advances last month.Amazonian rivers create stark barriers through the landscape and form the edges of many species’ range. But a large-scale genetic analysis in the Rio Negro basin suggests that while rivers have not played a direct role in giving rise to most new bird species, they may be crucial to maintaining them.The Guiana Shield is a region of the South American tectonic plate that includes Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Venezuela and parts of Colombia and Brazil, which together harbor high levels of biodiversity, including over 250 endemic bird species. Of these, 86 pairs have range boundaries that meet but never overlap, many of them coinciding with one of two rivers: the Rio Negro and the Rio Branco.Using the most comprehensive genetic and geographical database compiled for any Amazonian river basin to date, Luciano Naka and Robb Brumfield, both from Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, determined that the majority of pairs were unlikely to have speciated as a direct result of the formation of the two rivers. Most species evolved before the rivers formed, and did not show the pattern of evolutionary relationships expected of species separated suddenly by a physical barrier. But once formed, rivers act as significant barriers that isolate species, a finding that may also apply to man-made barriers such as roads.The caica parrot (Pyrilia caica), one of the more than 400 bird species endemic to the Guiana Shield. Its population is mirrored across the lower Rio Negro and Rio Branco by the closely related orange-cheeked parrot (Pyrilia barrabandi). Image by Luciano N. Naka.“This is a major advance towards understanding the role of rivers as agents of speciation in Amazonia,” says Angelo Capparella, a zoologist at Illinois State University in Normal, Illinois, who was not involved in the study. Previous research has investigated this phenomenon for one or a few species, but large-scale studies have been hampered by a lack of specimens; it took Naka, who is also affiliated with the Federal University of Pernambuco in Recife, Brazil, over a decade to collect the necessary data for birds in the Rio Negro Basin. “The combination of [the] large sample size of paired taxa with the latest in phylogenetic methods … makes for this being a robust study,” says Capparella.For many species of birds, mammals and invertebrates, Amazonian rivers mark the start and end of their range. The pattern is so noticeable, renowned naturalist Alfred Wallace wrote about the phenomenon in his 1852 article, “On the Monkeys of the Amazon”: “the native hunters … always cross over the river when they want to procure particular animals, which are found even on the river’s bank on one side, but never by any chance on the other.”The range of the black nunbird (Monasa atra) ends at the lower Rio Negro. Across the river lives a population of the white-fronted nunbird. The two species shared a common ancestor some 4.5 million years ago. Image by Luciano N. Naka.To understand how this pattern arose, Naka and Brumfield used mitochondrial DNA sequence data from specimens supplied by U.S. and Brazilian ornithological collections to estimate the likely divergence times for 74 pairs of bird species that replace one another along the stretches of the Rio Branco and Rio Negro. They found that the species arose between 240,000 and 8 million years ago. “The ages of each pair span through millions of years,” says Naka, making it very unlikely that a single event could be responsible for separating all pairs.Next, the authors reconstructed the birds’ evolutionary tree to determine patterns of relatedness between pairs. If two species are created by the formation of a river, or other physical barrier, then they would be likely to be each other’s closest relatives, known as “sister taxa.” But this is not the case for birds living in the Guiana Shield. “There are other Amazonian populations that are more closely related to either one of the two taxa studied than its cross-river replacement,” Naka says, indicating that the species probably evolved elsewhere and later met at the river barrier.Further support for this interpretation came from published geomorphological data for the area, which indicates that both rivers are in fact much younger than most of the species included in the study. The Rio Negro formed just 1.2 million years ago, and the Rio Branco is younger still, with evidence that its course changed from northeast to south, reaching its current route through the Guiana Shield just 19,000 years ago, making them far too young to have been the driving factor in the evolution of most bird species pairs.However, 12 taxa pairs that are separated by the upper Rio Negro had diverged around the same time that the river was formed, making it possible that they speciated as a direct result of its formation. “We cannot rule out their common origin,” Naka says.The forests of the Guiana Shield are home to more than 400 endemic bird species. Image by Luciano N. Naka.Amazonian rivers, they conclude, can play two distinct roles in species evolution: their formation may separate populations and create new species directly, and their presence can prevent hybridization or competition between related species that evolved independently and meet at the river.In his 1852 paper, Wallace hypothesized that the width of a river would determine the extent to which species differed on either side. Naka says their results show some tentative support for this hypothesis. “The Rio Negro is a good example showing how the lower and very wide reaches of the river is a barrier for about 80 pairs of avian taxa, and the upper and much narrower reaches only bound the distribution of about 20 pairs,” he says. However, the Rio Branco bucks this trend: it is just 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) wide but acts as a barrier to 40 pairs of birds and several species of primates.Understanding how the size of a barrier influences its ability to isolate populations genetically will have major implications for how conservationists try to mitigate the effects of habitat fragmentation caused by human activities. “Features such as major roads … could be fragmenting bird populations to the point that it will either unleash a new wave of speciation or, more likely, force populations into remnant habitat that is too small for long-term persistence,” Capparella says.This type of study can underpin conservation approaches known as Conserving Nature’s Stage (CNS) that take into account the physical factors that generate and maintain biodiversity when designing nature reserves that will offer a habitat environment in the long term.Banner image of the Rio Branco by Thiago Orsi Laranjeiras.Citation: L. N. Naka, R. T. Brumfield, The dual role of Amazonian rivers in the generation and maintenance of avian diversity. Sci. Adv. 4, eaar8575 (2018). Article published by hayat Amazon Biodiversity, Amazon Conservation, Birds, Evolution, Genetics center_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

Parlour ‘amazed’ by ‘Emery Out’ brigade and has message for moaning fans

first_img huge blow no dice REVEALED Ray Parlour has urged Arsenal fans to be patient with Unai Emery, telling talkSPORT he is ‘amazed’ by calls for the manager to be sacked after just eight months in charge.The Gunners legend says the team are ‘where they should be at the moment’, admitting they are not at the same level as Liverpool, Manchester City or rivals Tottenham. Which teams do the best on Boxing Day in the Premier League era? PREMIER LEAGUE LATEST ON TALKSPORT.COM REVEALED Unai Emery is coming under fire from unhappy Arsenal fans Where Ancelotti ranks with every Premier League boss for trophies won Premier League Team of the Season so far, including Liverpool and Leicester stars Some unhappy supporters turned on Spanish boss Emery after their 3-1 defeat to Manchester City on Sunday.The result severely dented Arsenal’s top-four hopes as they slid down the Premier League table to sixth place, with Manchester United leapfrogging them into fifth.The Gunners looked well off the pace compared to the defending champions and fans are blaming boss Emery for their side’s dip in form, having won just four games since their amazing 22-match unbeaten run was ended by Southampton in December. tense Boxing Day fixtures: All nine Premier League games live on talkSPORT center_img Son ban confirmed as Tottenham fail with appeal to overturn red card 1 gameday cracker Green reveals how he confronted Sarri after Chelsea’s 6-0 defeat at Man City “He is the man to take Arsenal forward… but he has to be backed by the board.”🗣️ @RealRomfordPele believes Unai Emery will bring success to the Emirates if given time and money.Do you agree #Arsenal fans? Or are you backing the #EmeryOut campaign? 🤔 pic.twitter.com/vbT019tAln— talkSPORT (@talkSPORT) February 4, 2019 “Certainly I think he’s the man to take the club forward, and now he’s got to be backed by the board.“Any manager is going to struggle if they haven’t got players to bring in.“You expect Man City, Man United and Chelsea to all spend and sign big players, so we’ve just got the stay in the hunt and try and compete with those clubs.“What wins you trophies is better players, that’s what Arsenal have to get if they’re going to do that, especially defensively.“Realistically it’s going to take time. You’ve got to give him a chance. To say ‘Emery Out’ already, it’s harsh.” 👎 “Emery is not the right man.” ❌ “He’s just got it all wrong.”😡 Lee the #Arsenal fan explains why he wants #EmeryOut.Is it too soon to be calling for Emery to be sacked? 🤔 pic.twitter.com/lp5YiwkulO— talkSPORT (@talkSPORT) February 4, 2019Twitter was awash with #EmeryOut following Sunday’s loss, and Parlour told the Alan Brazil Sports Breakfast: “I’m amazed by that.“Arsenal are where they are meant to be at the moment. They’re not at the same level as Liverpool, Man City or even Spurs.“You’ve got to give this guy a chance, he needs to be backed by the club.“You can’t sack the manager already and Arsenal are not that sort of club anyway.“Realistically I think you’ve got to give him a few transfer windows. I know he only brought in one player in January, but I think it’s going to take two or three windows to get the players he wants into the side. shining Oxlade-Chamberlain suffers another setback as Klopp confirms serious injury Man United transfer news live: Haaland ‘wants a change’, two players off in January deals last_img read more

Yoga Helps NC Detention Facility Breathe Easier

first_imgA dozen or more people sitting on mats and practicing deep breathing exercises is not what you’d expect to see at a detention facility, but it’s happening in at least one in North Carolina – with positive results.The Buncombe County Detention Facility has embarked on a pilot program to bring volunteer yoga instructors to inmates at their facility in hopes it will give them coping mechanisms both inside and outside the facility. The program is the brainchild of Val Lamberti, the facility’s inmate volunteer coordinator.“They feel less anxiety and they’re better able to tolerate the isolation of being in detention,” said Lamberti. “They can relate how important it is to know that they are somewhat in control of their body.”Lamberti said the yoga program is an effort to accommodate inmates now housed up to two years, because of a change in state policy for all local detention facilities. A University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill study of inmates participating in yoga at a Raleigh facility found that they had a significantly lower rate of reincarceration upon release.Paige Gilchrist of the Asheville Yoga Center, who has been instructing the classes since the program began, said the skills learned in yoga could help participants cope with the outside world once they are released.“We gave them free passes, hoping that when they’re back out in the world that this is something that they will continue and they’ll have an immediate support system to link into,” she said. “It feels like the right thing to do if our goal is really to help these people reintegrate into society.”Lamberti said the detention center already is seeing results.“Being able to see that and see their smiles. I’ve seen several of them who have come back for the second program,” she said. “They’re in a totally different place.”The Buncombe County facility now is in the second session of its pilot program. At the end of each session, participants receive a book to continue their studies and a completion certificate from the Asheville Yoga Center. There is a similar program at the Craggy Correctional Center.The UNC study is online at prisonyoga.org.last_img read more

Sunlight transforms communities

first_imgThe solar cooker bike, which has a lifespan of about 10 years, has six reflective panels that concentrate sunlight on a focal point that can reach 200 to 300 degrees Celsius on a clear and sunny day.(Image: Jenni Newman PR) The solar cooker bike allows South African communities to utilise the country’s abundant sun energy, while reducing reliance on other expensive energy sources such as electricity, paraffin or wood for cooking and heating.(Image: Crosby Menzies)MEDIA CONTACTS• Crosby MenziesSunFire Solutions+27 82 954 0144RELATED ARTICLES• Simple solar solution for rural Africa • Green valley lives up to its name • SA becoming a renewable energy hub • Africa leads solar laptop revolution Wilma den HartighA South African company has developed a mobile kitchen unit that is making it possible to cook in an environment-responsible and cost-effective way.Known as a solar cooker bike, the unit consists of a solar cooker mounted on a trailer that is hooked up to a bicycle. The solar cooker bike allows South African communities to utilise the country’s abundant sun energy, while reducing reliance on other expensive energy sources such as electricity, paraffin or wood for cooking and heating.The mobile kitchen was developed by solar cooking products company SunFire Solutions, in partnership with Nedbank and the Wildlife and Environment Society of South Africa (Wessa).The innovation is part of an energy efficiency project that could lead to a much bigger future rollout. Nedbank sponsored seven units which were distributed to residents of Dobsonville in Soweto, including five street vendors, as well as the Boikanyo Primary School and the Dorothy Nyembe Education Centre.Nina Wellsted, environmental sustainability manager at Nedbank, said the programme is assisting schools and communities to save resources such as water and electricity, and to be able to generate healthy food and nutrition in a sustainable way.Expanding the reach of solar technologyCrosby Menzies, environmentalist and founder of SunFire Solutions, says his mission is to ensure that solar technology becomes as ordinary and widely available as an everyday household appliance such as a kettle or iron.“Anyone who is hungry and has access to sunlight can use these products,” Menzies says, adding that if more people can access solar technology, it would allow families to save on electricity and paraffin costs while helping to reduce harm to the environment.“It is projects like these that allow SunFire to explore technologies which can have immense benefits for the two-billion people who are still reliant on firewood for their daily cooking energy source,” he says. How it worksThe solar cooker bike, which has a lifespan of about 10 years, has six reflective panels that concentrate sunlight on a focal point that can reach 200 to 300 degrees Celsius on a clear and sunny day.“The dome functions like a big magnifying glass. This is a high quality form of energy,” Menzies explains.The device can cook for up to 30 people at a time and boils a litre of water in four minutes, which is as fast as an electric kettle, but without harming the environment in the slightest.“Two of the most inefficient appliances in the home have been found to be the electric kettle and oven,” he says, “and if you can remove this cost from household expenses using sun energy, people will have more money to spend on education, or transport.” Transforming communities through sunlightMenzies says solar technology holds significant socio-economic benefits for households which rely on paraffin or firewood for energy and heat. Low income households spend as much as 25% of their income on cooking and heating fuel.Using sun energy gives children more time to attend school, do homework and receive a good education, as they don’t have to collect firewood and water for the home.Decreasing the need for firewood collection will also reduce deforestation in many countries. Solutions for unhealthy environmentsMenzies explains that cooking outdoors using sun energy reduces health complications such as respiratory and eye diseases that can develop as a result of indoor air pollution.The World Health Organisation reports that, in 23 countries, 10% of deaths are due to environmental factors such as unsafe water, including poor sanitation and hygiene; and indoor air pollution caused by solid fuel used for cooking.Cooking in this way produces high levels of pollution in the home, including small soot particles that penetrate deep into the lungs. In poorly ventilated dwellings, indoor smoke can be 100 times higher than acceptable levels for small particles.The data shows that simple household interventions, such as cleaner fuel and better cooking devices, could dramatically reduce death rates. Future expansionMenzies says the introduction of the solar cooker bike into other parts of South Africa holds great potential.Claire Warner, Wessa education manager for the northern areas region, said the Dobsonville launch of the product is encouraging the use of solar power as a cleaner energy alternative.“There is also huge educational value in this project, practically demonstrating to young people and adults how the power of the sun can be harnessed to do more than just heat water through solar panels.”last_img read more

Top stories: fresh-baked fossils, cloud-seeding algae, and how ancient farmers braved global cooling

first_img By Frankie SchembriAug. 17, 2018 , 4:30 PM Top stories: fresh-baked fossils, cloud-seeding algae, and how ancient farmers braved global cooling (left to right): EVAN SAITTA/FIELD MUSEUM/UNIVERSITY OF BRISTOL AND TOM KAYE/FOUNDATION FOR SCIENTIFIC ADVANCEMENT; STEVE GSCHMEISSNER/SCIENCE SOURCE; FIRDES SAYILAN/SHUTTERSTOCK.COM center_img These labmade fossils could reveal how dinosaurs really lookedBy baking their own fossils with pressure, heat, and clay, scientists have now found a way to examine the changes soft tissues experience over millions of years of fossilization. This approach may allow researchers to “reverse engineer” what ancient animals looked like when they still roamed Earth.This alga may be seeding the world’s skies with cloudsSign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)When one of the ocean’s most abundant microorganisms—the Emiliania huxleyi alga—dies, it sheds its tiny calcium carbonate shell. A new study reveals that bits of this shell are sometimes flung into the air by waves and become the kernel on which water vapor can condense to form droplets, which in turn become clouds.Animal fat on ancient pottery reveals a nearly catastrophic period of human prehistoryAround 6200 B.C.E., climates suddenly cooled across the globe. The impact on early farmers was probably extreme, yet archaeologists know little about how they endured. Now, the remains of animal fat on broken pottery from the ancient Çatalhöyük site in Turkey has revealed that, in addition to cooling, local farmers faced a prolonged drought. To cope, they butchered their meat to consume every possible calorie, and replaced their cattle herds with more resilient goats.When did a massive volcano blow this island to bits and rock the ancient world?A battle has long waged over the timing of an explosion that blew the top off the volcanic island of Thera in the Aegean Sea—and rocked the ancient world. Now, a study measuring the radiocarbon stored in the rings of five trees could help nail down the date—and serve as a calibration tool for widely used radiocarbon dating methods.Q&A: Doctoral students at Germany’s Max Planck Society say recent troubles highlight need for change In the wake of two cases of alleged harassment and bullying at Germany’s prestigious Max Planck Society, a network of roughly 5000 doctoral students working at its 84 institutes has issued a statement requesting stronger systems for preventing and resolving problems. Jana Lasser, a spokesperson for the students and a physicist and doctoral candidate at the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization in Göttingen, Germany, says early career researchers need to feel safer to speak up about conflicts at work.last_img read more