A new genetic analysis shows that rivers in northeast South America rarely give rise to new bird species, but are important in maintaining existing biodiversity.Researchers found that 86 pairs of the more than 400 endemic bird species in the Rio Negro basin have range boundaries that meet but never overlap, many of them coinciding with either the Rio Negro or the Rio Branco.Amazonian rivers, they conclude, can play two distinct roles in species evolution: their formation may separate populations and create new species directly, and their presence can prevent hybridization or competition between related species that evolved independently and meet at the river.Understanding how the size of a barrier influences its ability to isolate populations genetically will have major implications for how conservationists try to mitigate the effects of habitat fragmentation caused by human activities. Amazonian rivers don’t often drive the creation of new species, but do help maintain distinct populations, according to a study published in the journal Science Advances last month.Amazonian rivers create stark barriers through the landscape and form the edges of many species’ range. But a large-scale genetic analysis in the Rio Negro basin suggests that while rivers have not played a direct role in giving rise to most new bird species, they may be crucial to maintaining them.The Guiana Shield is a region of the South American tectonic plate that includes Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Venezuela and parts of Colombia and Brazil, which together harbor high levels of biodiversity, including over 250 endemic bird species. Of these, 86 pairs have range boundaries that meet but never overlap, many of them coinciding with one of two rivers: the Rio Negro and the Rio Branco.Using the most comprehensive genetic and geographical database compiled for any Amazonian river basin to date, Luciano Naka and Robb Brumfield, both from Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, determined that the majority of pairs were unlikely to have speciated as a direct result of the formation of the two rivers. Most species evolved before the rivers formed, and did not show the pattern of evolutionary relationships expected of species separated suddenly by a physical barrier. But once formed, rivers act as significant barriers that isolate species, a finding that may also apply to man-made barriers such as roads.The caica parrot (Pyrilia caica), one of the more than 400 bird species endemic to the Guiana Shield. Its population is mirrored across the lower Rio Negro and Rio Branco by the closely related orange-cheeked parrot (Pyrilia barrabandi). Image by Luciano N. Naka.“This is a major advance towards understanding the role of rivers as agents of speciation in Amazonia,” says Angelo Capparella, a zoologist at Illinois State University in Normal, Illinois, who was not involved in the study. Previous research has investigated this phenomenon for one or a few species, but large-scale studies have been hampered by a lack of specimens; it took Naka, who is also affiliated with the Federal University of Pernambuco in Recife, Brazil, over a decade to collect the necessary data for birds in the Rio Negro Basin. “The combination of [the] large sample size of paired taxa with the latest in phylogenetic methods … makes for this being a robust study,” says Capparella.For many species of birds, mammals and invertebrates, Amazonian rivers mark the start and end of their range. The pattern is so noticeable, renowned naturalist Alfred Wallace wrote about the phenomenon in his 1852 article, “On the Monkeys of the Amazon”: “the native hunters … always cross over the river when they want to procure particular animals, which are found even on the river’s bank on one side, but never by any chance on the other.”The range of the black nunbird (Monasa atra) ends at the lower Rio Negro. Across the river lives a population of the white-fronted nunbird. The two species shared a common ancestor some 4.5 million years ago. Image by Luciano N. Naka.To understand how this pattern arose, Naka and Brumfield used mitochondrial DNA sequence data from specimens supplied by U.S. and Brazilian ornithological collections to estimate the likely divergence times for 74 pairs of bird species that replace one another along the stretches of the Rio Branco and Rio Negro. They found that the species arose between 240,000 and 8 million years ago. “The ages of each pair span through millions of years,” says Naka, making it very unlikely that a single event could be responsible for separating all pairs.Next, the authors reconstructed the birds’ evolutionary tree to determine patterns of relatedness between pairs. If two species are created by the formation of a river, or other physical barrier, then they would be likely to be each other’s closest relatives, known as “sister taxa.” But this is not the case for birds living in the Guiana Shield. “There are other Amazonian populations that are more closely related to either one of the two taxa studied than its cross-river replacement,” Naka says, indicating that the species probably evolved elsewhere and later met at the river barrier.Further support for this interpretation came from published geomorphological data for the area, which indicates that both rivers are in fact much younger than most of the species included in the study. The Rio Negro formed just 1.2 million years ago, and the Rio Branco is younger still, with evidence that its course changed from northeast to south, reaching its current route through the Guiana Shield just 19,000 years ago, making them far too young to have been the driving factor in the evolution of most bird species pairs.However, 12 taxa pairs that are separated by the upper Rio Negro had diverged around the same time that the river was formed, making it possible that they speciated as a direct result of its formation. “We cannot rule out their common origin,” Naka says.The forests of the Guiana Shield are home to more than 400 endemic bird species. Image by Luciano N. Naka.Amazonian rivers, they conclude, can play two distinct roles in species evolution: their formation may separate populations and create new species directly, and their presence can prevent hybridization or competition between related species that evolved independently and meet at the river.In his 1852 paper, Wallace hypothesized that the width of a river would determine the extent to which species differed on either side. Naka says their results show some tentative support for this hypothesis. “The Rio Negro is a good example showing how the lower and very wide reaches of the river is a barrier for about 80 pairs of avian taxa, and the upper and much narrower reaches only bound the distribution of about 20 pairs,” he says. However, the Rio Branco bucks this trend: it is just 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) wide but acts as a barrier to 40 pairs of birds and several species of primates.Understanding how the size of a barrier influences its ability to isolate populations genetically will have major implications for how conservationists try to mitigate the effects of habitat fragmentation caused by human activities. “Features such as major roads … could be fragmenting bird populations to the point that it will either unleash a new wave of speciation or, more likely, force populations into remnant habitat that is too small for long-term persistence,” Capparella says.This type of study can underpin conservation approaches known as Conserving Nature’s Stage (CNS) that take into account the physical factors that generate and maintain biodiversity when designing nature reserves that will offer a habitat environment in the long term.Banner image of the Rio Branco by Thiago Orsi Laranjeiras.Citation: L. N. Naka, R. T. Brumfield, The dual role of Amazonian rivers in the generation and maintenance of avian diversity. Sci. Adv. 4, eaar8575 (2018). Article published by hayat Amazon Biodiversity, Amazon Conservation, Birds, Evolution, Genetics Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored
0Shares0000FIFA President Gianni Infantino speaks during a press briefing closing a meeting of the FIFA executive council at FIFA headquarters in Zurich on January 10, 2017HARARE, Zimbabwe, Feb 19- FIFA President Gianni Infantino will be in Zimbabwe at the same time as a regional meeting which has drawn criticism from the Confederation of African Football (CAF).Infantino has accepted an invitation from Zimbabwe FA president Philip Chiyangwa to visit the country. In December, Chiyangwa was elected chairman of the Council of Southern African Football Associations (COSAFA). CAF recently claimed that a planned COSAFA meeting on 24 February is ‘an attempt to destabilise’ the African body.“Convening a meeting with representatives of many member associations outside the Cosafa zone is deemed to represent an attempt to destabilise Caf,” the organisation added.Chiyangwa has also invited other African FA Presidents to the gathering.The COSAFA region encompasses Madagascar, whose FA head Ahmad Ahmad is the sole challenger to Issa Hayatou in next month’s CAF Presidential elections.COSAFA has already pledged its vote, which encompasses 14 members, to Ahmad, who is looking to dethrone Hayatou, the Cameroonian who has led CAF since 1988.Appointed FIFA president twelve months ago, Infantino will visit Zimbabwe shortly after attending the world governing body’s summit in South Africa between 21-23 February.“This will take place in connection with my trip to South Africa for the FIFA Executive Summits in Johannesburg,” Infantino wrote in a letter dated 15 February to Chiyangwa.“I will be arriving in Harare on Thursday 23 February and leaving on Friday 24 February,” he added in a letter seen by the BBC.“I have no doubt that this visit will help us to lay the foundations for further fruitful cooperation and to share our personal visions for the continued development of our sport in your country.”After receiving Caf’s letter, Chiyangwa wrote back to complain about its tone while also denying any attempt to destabilise African football’s governing body.“The informal gathering styled as ‘Dr Philip Chiyangwa Birthday and Cosafa Presidency Victory celebration’ in Harare scheduled for 24 February is merely my belated birthday celebration,” the Zimbabwean wrote.“I also intend, on the same occasion, to celebrate my ascendancy to the Cosafa presidency.”Earlier this week, Ahmad unveiled his election manifesto which highlighted a desire for improved governance, citing a commitment to increased transparency and reinvestment.Ahmad is considered the most serious challenger in years to Hayatou, who was re-elected unopposed in 2013. The Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa will host the CAF elections on 16 March.-By BBC-0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today)
“This project underwent a three-year rigorous and thorough science-based process that evaluated and incorporated mitigation measures that will minimize the environmental impacts.”Original story: http://ca.reuters.com/article/email/idCAKCN12Q0BX?pageNumber=1&virtualBrandChannel=0 KUALA LUMPUR – According to an article by Reuters, Aboriginal groups and environmental groups are planning on suing Canada over the Pacific NorthWest LNG project.The article states the groups plan to sue to have the permit revoked from the project that was approved last month by the Justin Trudeau government with 190 conditions that have to be met before the project moves forward.The lawsuit will apparently name Petronas as an associated party. Representatives of the groups told Reuters this information this week.- Advertisement -In a statement by the groups today, it states they will be taking the fight to Federal Court in Vancouver. The groups said there will be “multiple legal actions”.Petronas has not returned requests for comment according to the article.Caitlin Workman, a spokeswoman for Environment Minister Catherine McKenna said that the project has been carefully examined.Advertisement
CANYON COUNTRY – The electric road sign was beat up when Bob Meza bought it at an auction. Since then, he put time and money into fixing the sign to warn speeders to slow down in his quiet residential neighborhood. Now, the city has asked Meza, 52, to take down the sign and get a permit for it. That angered some neighbors, who said the city is not doing enough to control speeding. Meza just this week parked the electric sign on Canvas Street near Alder Peak Avenue, at the top of a hill that neighbors say motorists speed down. The sign flashes a notice that the limit is 25 mph, and with the aid of radar it posts each passing car’s speed and flashes a light if they are going too fast. “Watch this car, 34 miles per hour,” Meza said, standing by the sign as a car zipped by. “But you saw that they put the brakes on.” Meza, who works as a studio engineer, said he plans to apply for a permit for the sign. City officials say they have been working with Meza and his neighbors to control speeding, but that a sign should only go up for a couple days a week as an educational tool. The city gets complaints from residents every day about drivers speeding through their neighborhoods. But research shows most of the speeders on residential streets live in the neighborhood, said Gail Ortiz, a spokeswoman for the city. “The problems relating to speeding through the neighborhoods are much more a perception than a reality, and … the answer is a multifaceted approach,” Ortiz said. “It’s not just putting up signs and having a cop on every corner.” The city has an electric sign on Soledad Canyon Road near the Saugus Speedway. It’s in the center median, over a speed-limit sign, and it shows motorists how fast they are going. Earlier this year, when speeding arose as a problem in the Ermine Street neighborhood, the city had meetings and mailed educational cards to residents to get them to slow down. The cards asked residents: Who is speeding through your neighborhood? The cards opened to reveal a small mirror. But residents on and around Canvas Street in Canyon Country say the city should do more. They say that since Linda Vista Street was opened to cars from Sierra Highway, the neighborhood has received pass-through traffic from cars going between the highway and Soledad Canyon Road to the south. Now, neighbors say so many cars pass on Canvas Street that they have trouble even backing out of their driveways, with passing motorists glaring at them for getting in the way. Nancy Van Sciver, a retiree who lives on Canvas Street, said she even doubts that the speed sign Meza installed would slow traffic. Sciver said the “mom brigade” speeding by on a nearby street to drop off and pick up children from school is not slowed by traffic-controlling measures. “Even when they have a cop sitting there, those moms ignore it and they’re going 40 miles per hour,” she said. The city has installed speed-limit notices on Canvas Street, but residents want more. About 200 residents signed a petition asking the city to install speed bumps and more stop signs and close off Linda Vista Street. When Meza bought the sign, it had been bent up in a traffic collision, he said. He fixed it and programmed it before the city told him to take it down. Resident Cathy Soto, who works as a purchasing agent, said the city should not make Meza take his sign down. “I think that’s horrible,” she said. “The city’s not helping us.” email@example.com (661) 257-5253160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!
10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Old Trafford hosted David Beckham’s ‘Match for Children’ on Saturday afternoon, which saw Great Britain and Ireland, managed by Sir Alex Ferguson, defeat a star-studded Rest of the World side 3-1.Icons Ronaldinho, Luis Figo and Robert Pires took to the pitch, but all eyes were fixed on the commanding performances of Beckham, Ryan Giggs, Paul Scholes, Phil Neville and Nicky Butt, with the quartet reminding supporters of the glory days at United.MANCHESTER UNITED FANS ASK ‘CAN WE PLEASE BRING BECKHAM, GIGGS AND SCHOLES BACK?’Click the yellow arrow above, right, to see a selection of the best images from the exciting UNICEF clash in Manchester. 10 10 Click the arrow above to see more images from Old Trafford! 10
HOLDOVERS: Will Smith’s “I Am Legend” beat expectations with a record December opening of $77.2million. Even if its receipts drop by more than 50percent, it will still gross about $35million and challenge for second place.Look for “Alvin and the Chipmunks” to continue its stunning performance. Its $44.3million opening was also a stunner, and it should remain in the top five with at least a $25million second weekend.MILESTONES: “Legend” will sail past the $100million milestone by Sunday. Inching ever so close – at a much slower pace – is Disney’s “Enchanted,” which could get a nice boost now that the kids are out of school.EXPANSIONS: A quartet of Oscar-caliber flicks are easier to find starting today.“Atonement” and “Juno” are now in 200-plus locations, “The Kite Runner” expands to 350 sites, and “The Savages” is playing in 60 firstname.lastname@example.orgWant local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREWhicker: Clemson demonstrates that it’s tough to knock out the champTHE FORECAST: I just saw “Treasure,” the sequel to the 2004 surprise Disney smash, at the ArcLight, and it was a load of fun. Since it will be playing in a whopping 3,500 theaters and should have widespread appeal, I’m picking it to come out on top of the pack with a $45 million debut.The young guys are gonna flock to Sony’s “Walk Hard,” which was written by Judd Apatow (“Knocked Up” and “40 Year Old Virgin”), pushing the film to a $20million to $25million opening weekend.Then, you gotta figure Hanks and Roberts will draw a lot of adults to see Universal’s “Wilson,” based on a true story and directed by Mike Nichols to take in at least $15million to $18million.Depp can be hit or miss at the box office, but I expect “Sweeney Todd” to add to his already dazzling 2007. (“Pirates of the Caribbean: At World’s End” grossed $309.4million domestically.) Since the musical from Paramount/DreamWorks is in just 1,000 theaters, it will not be able to contend for a top-three finish. But it can rack up an impressive per-theater average, take in maybe $10million, and begin strong word-of-mouth momentum.I fear that “P.S.” from Warner Bros. will get lost in the shuffle and struggle to reach even $10million. I know that the Christmas holiday is a primo time to roll out a movie, but did the studios really have to give us five wide releases this season?And these don’t seem to be throwaway flicks.You’ve got Oscar-winners Tom Hanks, Julia Roberts and Philip Seymour Hoffman in the drama “Charlie Wilson’s War,” Oscar-winners Nicolas Cage, Helen Mirren and Jon Voight in the adventure sequel “National Treasure: Book of Secrets,” Johnny Depp in the musical “Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street,” Gerard Butler and two-time Oscar winner Hilary Swank in the romance flick “P.S. I Love You,” and former Oscar nominee John C. Reilly in the highly anticipated comedy “Walk Hard: The Dewey Cox Story.”Whew!
Neil Lennon’s team have been hit by an injury crisis in midfield with John McGinn and Fraser Fyvie both missing and under SPFL rules clubs can apply for emergency loan deals. Commons was a key player under Lennon at Celtic, winning the PFA Scotland Players’ Player of the Year award in 2013-14.Under SPFL rules, an emergency loan deal can only last for a maximum of 93 days.Following that period, Hibernian could opt to sign Commons on a regular loan deal or a permanent transfer in January. Celtic’s Kris Commons has joined Hibernian on an emergency loan deal.The midfielder, who has six months left on his Celtic contract, travelled to Edinburgh to seal the deal to join Neil Lennon’s side as they push to win promotion to the Scottish Premiership.The capital club announced the deal will last until January 15.Commons told the club’s website: “It has come about very quickly, but I think it makes sense on both parts. I can try to get some football under my belt and give Hibs a helping hand as well. “As much as I am trying to help Hibs, the club are trying to help me out a lot, so I’m grateful to them for giving me the opportunity to play football. I’m also thoroughly looking forward to hopefully helping them on the way and putting on the jersey and doing my best.”Commons, 33, has struggled with injury this season and has failed to make an appearance for the Scottish champions under Brendan Rodgers.Neil Lennon said: “Kris is an experienced, technically gifted player, so him coming in at this time is of benefit to the side as the games start coming in over the festive period.“With us missing a lot of our regular midfield players, it is good to bring in someone with a lot to offer, even just on a short-term basis.”
That run of results, during which Celtic score 16 goals and concede five over five games, continued the team’s unbeaten run in the league. It earned Rodgers his fourth monthly award, adding to the trophies he picked up in August, October and December. Celtic boss Brendan Rodgers has been named as Premiership Manager of the Month for April, taking the award for the fourth time this season.It adds to the PFA Manager of the Year award he collected on Sunday.Rodgers’ side began the month by sealing their sixth successive title with a 5-0 win against Hearts at Tynecastle before a home draw with Partick Thistle, a win against Kilmarnock and a draw at Ross County. Celtic completed April with a 5-1 win over Rangers at Ibrox.
Alan Stubbs believes his former club Hibernian could beat Rangers and Aberdeen to finish as Premiership runners-up this season.The Edinburgh side are three points behind both sides with five matches to go, beginning with a home game against a Celtic side looking to wrap up the title on Saturday.Stubbs said he thought Neil Lennon’s side could put Celtic’s title celebrations on hold and then put together a run that makes them best of the rest. He said the bruising Scottish Cup defeats suffered by Rangers and Aberdeen could be a factor if Hibs can play the way they’ve been playing.“I think they’ve got a good opportunity to do it and going by how consistent they’ve been all season I think it’s going to go right to the wire,” the former Easter Road head coach said. “I think out of all the teams in the top six, apart from Celtic and Kilmarnock, Hibs have been probably one of the most consistent teams all season in terms of performances and results. “Rangers have to bounce back from the weekend’s disappointing result, as do Aberdeen.”Reflecting on Rangers’s 4-0 defeat at the hands of Celtic and the subsequent fallout that saw Kenny Miller and Lee Wallace suspended by the Ibrox club, Stubbs said he wasn’t enjoying the team’s struggles.“I think it’s sad,” he said. “It’s disappointing because I don’t think anybody from a Scottish point of view wants to see a club as big as Rangers performing as poorly as they are. “There’s certainly an element where Celtic want to see a stronger Rangers, in terms of helping them become stronger, because it’s not doing them any favours.“Going into an Old Firm game now, unfortunately it looks like there’s only going to be one outcome and that’s a Celtic win because Rangers do seem to be a distance behind them in quality and class.“I think it’s now an opportunity for the likes of Hibs and Aberdeen to really try and gain momentum and push forward.”Stubbs was Celtic captain under John Barnes and said he could understand the frustration of players when things weren’t going well but that he felt there still had to be professionalism when raising concerns.“As a captain you sometimes have a responsibility to speak on behalf of the group, and at times say things in the dressing room that stay inside the dressing room,” he said. “But the one thing that you have to do is all of that is be respectful as well.“From what I can gather and what’s coming out, there has certainly been a lack of respect towards Graeme Murty and his staff and what’s gone on prior to the game. That’s certainly a mark that you can’t cross.“If that’s true, then they’ve crossed a line that you shouldn’t even be thinking about crossing.”
When temperatures fall below zero:If pipes are in an area that makes them vulnerable to the cold, consider allowing a small trickle of water from both your cold and hot water faucets to run overnight to keep pipes from freezing.The cost of the extra water is low compared to the cost to repair a broken pipe.Open cabinet doors to expose pipes to warmer room temperatures.If your pipes freeze:Shut off the water immediately. Don’t attempt to thaw frozen pipes unless the water is shut off. Freezing can often cause unseen cracks in pipes or joints that will leak when thawed.Apply heat to the frozen pipe by warming the air around it, or by applying heat directly to the pipe. You can use a hair dryer, space heater, or hot water. Be sure not to leave space heaters unattended and avoid the use of kerosene heaters or open flames.Once the pipes have thawed, turn the water back on slowly and check for cracks and leaks.To further help protect your pipes in cold winter weather; keep these helpful tips in mind.Make sure everyone in your home knows where the main water shut-off valve is and how to turn it off and on. If a pipe freezes or bursts, shut the water off immediately.Search your house for un-insulated pipes, especially in unheated areas. Consider wrapping pipes with electric heating tape, but follow manufacturers’ instructions carefully to avoid a fire hazard.Seal cracks and holes in outside walls and foundations, especially where cable TV or phone lines enter the house, with caulking to keep cold winds away from pipes.If your home is heated by a hot-water radiator, bleed the valves by opening them slightly. Close them when water appears.Make certain that the water to your hose bibs is shut off inside your house (via a turnoff valve), and that the lines are disconnected and drained.Drain and shut off entirely the water to any unoccupied residence. A loss of power during a winter storm could cause pipes to freeze. If you intend to leave a property entirely without heat, be sure to drain all water to prevent the possibility of frozen pipes. As the area deals with ROUND 2 of ARTIC BLAST and numerous homeowners and business owners in Orleans reporting more frozen and/busted water lines.Orleans town officials and its water department are urging residents to make preparations to prevent water damage from frozen and burst pipes and water meters.